Tennis-Badminton Connection-Early Research on Pronation & Internal Shoulder Rotation
I recently got a copy of Badminton, 4th edition, (1996) by James Poole and Jon Poole.
Poole's work was referred to in an earlier reply by SystemicAnomaly.
Poole referred to work by David Waddell and Barbara Gowitzke using high speed cameras to analyze badminton smashes.
[Badminton serves are not overhead. In badminton, the serve must be hit with the racket head below the waist. However, forehand "smashes" and "clears" are very commonly used and these correspond closely to the tennis serve.]
Update 12/31/2013 - description and video of badminton smash.
I found these interesting conference presentations that bear on pronation, internal shoulder rotation and tennis. Waddell & Gowitze used high speed film cameras to analyze strokes.
1) Myths and Realities in Badminton and Tennis (1985). D. Waddell & B. Gowitzke
The information is presented by stating a myth and then - in parenthesis - showing the findings of Waddell and Gowitzke
Here's the one that bears on pronation and internal shoulder rotation on the serve
"7. A major source of power is gained from the "wrist snap". (The popular concept of "wrist snap" is found in most badminton and tennis instruction manuals and refers to the method in which a player gains additional power in a forehand clear or smash or in (?, copy not legible) tennis "cannonball-type tennis serve. A recognition of what is truly happening anatomically (found in only a few references) is that the forearm is turning and, equally important, the upper arm is turning. The biomechanical terms for these actions in forehand strokes are pronation in the radio-ulnar joints and medial rotation in the shoulder joint. ................)"
[medial rotation is a term used in some countries for internal shoulder rotation]
3rd International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports (1985)
Summary in 2000 of the badminton research of Waddell and Gowitzke
2) BIOMECHANICAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO BADMINTON POWER STROKES
18th International Symposium on Biomechanics and Sports (2000)
In the late '80s, I can clearly remember reading of pronation, which I correctly interpreted as an elbow-forearm rotation, and attempting to improve my serve by practicing it. I wish that I had known............
Jim McLennan references Waddell & Gowitzke
Missed this when you posted it back in July.
Excellent post. Good job on digging up this stuff. I believe that Dr. James Poole first wrote about this stuff back in the 1960s for a college thesis. I recall seeing that paper on the interweb back in the 1990s but I suspect it is no longer accessible. At that time, Poole wrote primarily about forearm pronation and the mistaken over-emphasis of the wrist (flexion).
Poole was a world-class badminton player who played internationally primarily in the 1950s thru the early 1970s. I believe that he was also very competent in tennis, basketball and baseball and was well acquainted with the mechanics of all these sports.
I think badminton has helped me A LOT in generating serve and overhead power. I'm not a big guy (5' 7" 145lbs) and have only played for just over 1 year but I can hit about a 100-108mph serve all day (at least the radar gun at the last tournament measured it that way). It's such a relaxed motion for me that I don't feel fatigued much hitting 2 baskets worth of balls before a group class.
This slow motion video is very good at showing the wrist motion on a jump smash and it is very similar to how I take swings at overheads and serves.
He holds the record for fastest smash in a tournament @ 332kph (206mph). Sure it slows down but try to fish that up when you are standing about 18 feet away without it hitting you or the ground.
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