Easy gentlemen. Water, electrolytes, simple sugars, complex sugars and proteins are all required for training. This has been extensively studied. While I myself aman engineer, I was raised by an amateur racing cyclist whose day job happens to be a professor of medicine. His regimen for a 100mi ride consists of 1 bottle w/ water with nuun mixed in, four gels, and the second bottle being an accelerade mixture. In order that's water, electrolytes, both sugars and proteins. It's no coincidence that charliefederer's article states exactly this mix just as I had on the previous page. Another very useful addition is for recovery/changeovers, chocolate milk. You'll be hard pressed to find a better post-workout drink.
After riding a bike for 90 minutes at moderate intensity, then for 10 minutes of high intensity intervals, 10 trained cyclists had significantly more power and rode faster (reduced their ride time by an average of six minutes) when they consumed low-fat chocolate milk rather than a carbohydrate sports drink or calorie-free beverage.
Compared to the other recovery drinks, chocolate milk drinkers had twice the improvement in maximal oxygen uptake after four and a half weeks of cycling, which included intense exercise five days a week, with each exercise session followed by one of the three recovery beverages. Maximal oxygen uptake is one indicator of an athlete's aerobic endurance and ability to perform sustained exercise. The study included 32 healthy, amateur male and female cyclists.
Ivy's research also revealed that low-fat chocolate milk drinkers built more muscle and shaved off more fat during training, ending up with a three-pound lean muscle advantage after four and a half weeks of training as compared to study participants who consumed a carbohydrate drink. This study also included 32 healthy, amateur male and female cyclists who rode for one hour, five days a week, and drank one of the three recovery beverages immediately following and one hour after the bout of exercise.
"We don’t yet understand exactly what mechanism is causing low-fat chocolate milk to give athletes these advantages — that will take more research," said Ivy, "but there's something in the naturally-occurring protein and carbohydrate mix that offers significant benefits."
Ivy notes that a 30-minute recovery window after exercise, for people of all fitness levels, is as important as the nutrition supplement that's consumed.