At the end of the day, it's just an EXO3 Black - it's not like the sticker has obscured, completely ripped out or obliterated something like the "Made in Austria" designation on a PC600 or other Austrian-made HEADs. At any rate, OP said he received the racket like that from the original owner.
Strungout's owner can be a curmudgeon at the worst of times (tennis shop equivalent of Seinfeld's Soup Naht-zee) so I wouldn't be surprised if he told the OP to GTFO if he dared raise the issue. He's been in business a longtime so he wouldn't cry about losing one customer over a *relatively* petty issue.
WANTED: Prince Classic Graphite 100 (1/4) and Tecnifibre 315 Ltd 16x18 (1/4)